Quantitative Parts of Ancient Greek Tragedy
Aristotle identified six basic elements:
1) plot (parts of, in order. Define and state the function) ALL, including (but not limited to....
Prologue, Episode, Exode, Choric song; this last being divided into Parode and Stasimon. Peculiar to some are the songs of actors from the stage and the Commos.
(2) character (tragic hero vs comic hero or epic hero)
(3) diction (the choice of style, imagery, etc.);
(4) thought (the character's thoughts and the author's meaning);
(5) spectacle (all the visual effects; Aristotle considered this to be the least important element);
The Prologue is that entire part of a tragedy which precedes the Parode of the Chorus. The Episode is that entire part of a tragedy which is between complete choric songs. The Exode is that entire part of a tragedy which has no choric song after it. Of the Choric part the Parode is the first undivided utterance of the Chorus: the Stasimon is a Choric ode without anapaests or trochaic tetrameters: the Commos is a joint lamentation of Chorus and actors.
The Tragic Hero
1) must be of divine, or of noble birth
2) He is better than the average guy, but not perfect (so we can relate to him, but still be impressed)
3) he must start off good and become worse through CHOICE (self will is the biggie here)
4) he must possess a character flaw (hamartia is the term) which causes him to make bad choices and brings about his downfall
5)at some point he must recognize his error and revert to his innate state of good
6)there must be a catharsis and return to "normalcy"
7)the punishment must exceed the crime ( need not die, but death certainly meets this requirement)
Monday: Discuss Books I-III (political satire as well as "spiritual journey"). DO: list the five devils who make suggestions during the debate in Hell. What is each the "god of"? What does each suggest? How is this apropos or ironic? (hand in)
Tuesday: Discuss Books IV-VI (getting into the Garden, everyone's opinion of Eve)
Wednesday: Practice AP (MC) from released exam.
Today we'll analyze several poems from different eras and practice annotating them. We will also look at how providing additional inso about the era, the author, etc. can alter our interpretation of a poem.
Used: Blake O Rose Thou Art Sick, Wordsworth She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways, and Mckinnet/St. John of the Cross Dark Night of the Soul.
We will also briefly discuss Dr. Faustus. Assign books I-II of Paradise Lost (PL) which is on the Restoration unit page.
Read Dr. Faustus (link on unit page). This is a background text to other work we will do this semester. Note the tropes Marlowe employed/created. Also, be able to verbally address the following points and questions:
- Is Mephistophilis Faustus' friend or his deadly enemy?
- Why doesn't Faustus repent?
- What role do diversions play in Doctor Faustus?
- How does magic affect the comic characters, Wagner and Robin?
- What does the Chorus think of Faustus?
- What is the definition of hell in this play?
- Faustus dreams that magic will bring him limitless power. To what extent do his dreams come true?
- How do the Old Man and Helen function as dramatic opposites in Act V?
- Is Faustus a Renaissance or medieval hero? Justify your response.
- Find three examples of hyperbole (exaggeration), and discuss Marlowe's specific techniques.
Is Faustus a hero?
What kind of relationship exists between Faustus and Mephistophilis?
Why is Wagner Mephistophilis' heir?
Does Faustus choose to be damned? Or is he forced into it by demons?
What role do Valdes and Cornelius play in Doctor Faustus?
Of all the things that Faustus desires, what does he desire most?
How does Benvolio resemble Faustus?
Write an entry in Wagner's diary, and date it from the last month of Faustus' life.
Wagner tells Robin to follow in his footsteps. How does Robin carry out the order?
Contrast the characters of the Pope and the Old Man.
Why do the central relationships of Faustus' life involve spirits and shades, not human beings?
How does Marlowe use Aristotle's rules of the structure of a tragedy? Be specific!
What is the point of the Icarus image in the prologue?
What examples of hyperbole (exaggeration) can you find in Faustus' speech to Helen of Troy?
Why is there so much Latin in the play?
How does Marlowe change the verse line to show frustration or uncertainty in Faustus?
Find three examples of irony in Doctor Faustus and explain what purpose the irony serves.
What do you learn about Faustus from his study?
Why is the University of Wittenberg in a state of unease?
What use does Marlowe make of the trapdoor on the Elizabethan stage?
Compare the world of Doctor Faustus to a medieval painting.
Would Marlowe agree with this statement: "A man's reach should exceed his grasp, or what's a heaven for?" (The quotation is from Robert Browning's "Andrea del Sarto.") Why?
Does Doctor Faustus have a Christian moral? What is it?
Most unit docs here:
Sign up for notices:
TII Plagiarism ✅
Join code: 13520459
For electronic/paperless turn in of HW, Go to Google Classroom
Class Join Code: 4nuqxd2